Integrated Surgical Workstation

During a surgical operation, despite the status of the patient and the OR workflow, the surgeon has to keep an overview of an increasing number of medical devices. Each device has an individual display and control panel, demanding a high amount of attention from the surgeon. The resulting high mental load contradicts the demand for usability of medical devices. In addition, a communication between the medical devices is prevented by incompatible interfaces and data formats. As a result, the exchange of information regarding the surgical procedure is not viable, but might offer potential for improving the surgical process.

Thus, in this project a surgical workstation is developed, in which medical devices from various manufactures can be integrated, using an open standardized communication interface. The future goal is to allow the operation of individual devices and functionalities via the centralized workstation. In addition, the workstation should display information from the devices and its parameters on a central monitor, allowing for fading in of information, when it is needed in the operation process. This way a central reference point is created for the surgeon and the OR personnel, in order to provide the required information for the OR workflow. In addition, this project takes into consideration the requirements for connecting medical devices of different manufactures (approval process, risk management and usability engineering, Human-Machine-Interaction) and the implementation of a common standard (IEEE 11073 SDC) for the communication of medical devices in the operation theatre. Moreover, innovative Human-Machine-Interfaces, like Gesture-, Foot-, Voice- or Tablet-control, Remote-Pointer, for the integrated surgical workstation are developed and examined.

Related Projects


This work is funded by the European Regional Development Fund (EFRE) and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.


  • A. Janß, S. Schlichting & K. Radermacher: Operationssaal und Klinik 4.0 - Der OR.NET Ansatz. In: W. Frenz (ed.): Handbuch Industrie 4.0: Recht, Technik, Gesellschaft (Teil VI Medizin und Gesundheit), Springer, 2020, pp. 1053-1075 [DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-58474-3_54]
  • F. Beger, A. Janß, S. Bürger, M. Kasparick & H. Clusmann: Neuer Kommunikationsstandard für das Krankenhaus - Der neue Gerätekommunikationsstandard IEEE 11073 SDC hält Einzug im Krankenhaus 4.0. meditronic, 2019, 5, pp. 174-177
  • F. Beger, A. Janß, S. Bürger, M. Kasparick & H. Clusmann: PriMed – Interdisziplinäre Arbeitsstationen für den OP 4.0. mt|medizintechnik, TÜV Media GmbH, 2019, 4, pp. 25-28
  • M. Ohligs, C. Pereira, V. Voigt, M. Koeny, A. Janß, R. Rossaint & M. Czaplik: Evaluation of an Anesthesia Dashboard Functional Model Based on a Manufacturer-Independent Communication Standard: Comparative Feasibility Study. JMIR Human Factors, 2019, 6(2), pp. e12553 [DOI: 10.2196/12553]
  • M. Vossel, M. de la Fuente, D. Wieschebrock, O. Yilmaz, K. Radermacher & A. Janß: Integrating a Tracking Camera in the OR Using the IEEE 11073-SDC Communication Standard. In: P. Meere & F. Rodriguez Y Baena (ed.): CAOS 2019. The 19th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery, 3, 2019, pp. 409-414 [DOI: 10.29007/j83k]
  • F. Beger, A. Janß, M. Kasparick, S. Bürger & H. Clusmann: Gerätevernetzung im OP 4.0 wird Standard. In meditronic-journal - Fachzeitschrift für Medizin-Technik, Vol. 5, pp. 6–10, Beam-Verlag, Marburg, Deutschland, November 2018
  • J. Heibeyn, B. Strathen, A. Janß, M. Geiger, D. Wieschebrock, H. Clusmann & K. Radermacher: Integration of a gesture control system within the open interconnection of medical devices in the OR. Proceedings, Abstract, Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie (DKOU 2018), 2018 [DOI: 10.3205/18dkou270]
  • A. Janß, J. Thorn, M. Schmitz, A. Mildner, J. Dell'Anna-Pudlik, M. Leucker & K. Radermacher: Extended device profiles and testing procedures for the approval process of integrated medical devices using the IEEE 11073 communication standard. Biomed Tech (Berl), 2018, 63(1), pp. 95-103
  • P. Krumholz, A. Janß & K. Radermacher: Designkonzept zur einhändigen OP-Tisch Bedienung via Touch. mt medizintechnik, 2018, 138(6), pp. 20-23
  • P. Krumholz, A. Janß & K. Radermacher: Usability Evaluation of a One-Handed Touchbased OR-Table Control. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 2018, 4(1), pp. 157-160 [DOI: 10.1515/cdbme-2018-0039]
  • M. Rockstroh, S. Franke, R. Dees, A. Merzweiler, G. Schneider, M. Dingler, C. Dietz, J. Pfeifer, F. Kühn, M. Schmitz, A. Mildner, A. Janß, J. Dell'Anna Pudlik, M. Köny, B. Andersen, B. Bergh & T. Neumuth: From SOMDA to application - integration strategies in the OR.NET demonstration sites. Biomed Tech (Berl), 2018, 63(1), pp. 69-80 [DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2017-0023]
  • B. Andersen, M. Kasparick, A. Janß, M. Rockstroh, S. Franke , F. Golatowski, K. Radermacher, T. Neumuth & J. Ingenerf: Unterstützung des Chirurgen durch vernetzte Medizingeräte & Computer-assistierte Chirurgie. In: Einhäupl K.M. (ed.), Medizin 4.0 – Zur Zukunft der Medizin in der digitalisierten Welt, Berlin, Germany, Hanns Martin Schleyer-Stiftung, 88, 159-172, 2017
  • F. Beger, A. Janß, M. Kasparick & A. Besting: Der Operationssaal OP 4.0 - Für mehr Sicherheit und Effizienz durch offene Vernetzung in Operationssälen und Kliniken der Zukunft. In meditronic-journal - Fachzeitschrift für Medizin-Technik, Vol. 4, pp. 20-24, beam-Verlag, Marburg, Deutschland, November 2017
  • A. Janss, A. Vitting, B. Strathen, M. Strake & K. Radermacher: Intraoperative Workflow Optimization by Using a Universal Foot Switch for Open Integrated OR Systems in Orthopaedic Surgery. In: K. Radermacher & F. Rodriguez Y Baena (ed.): CAOS2017. EPiC Series in Health Sciences, 1, 2017, pp. 248-253
  • A. Vitting, A. Janß, B. Strathen, M. Strake & K. Radermacher: Further Development and Evaluation of a Universal Foot Switch for Diverse Medical Disciplines within the Framework of an Open Integration Concept for the Operation Theatre of the Future. In: V. Duffy & N. Lightner (ed.): Proceedings of the AHFE 2017 International Conferences on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare and Medical Devices, online, 2017, pp. 438-449 [DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-60483-1_45]
  • M. Vossel, B. Strathen, M. Kasparick, M. Müller, K. Radermacher, M. de La Fuente & A. Janß: Integration of Robotic Applications in Open and Safe Medical Device IT Networks Using IEEE 11073 SDC. In: K. Radermacher & F. Rodriguez Y Baena (ed.): CAOS2017. EPiC Series in Health Sciences, 1, 2017, pp. 254-257 [DOI: 10.29007/fmqx]
  • B. Andersen, B. Bergh, A. Besting, J. Dehm, J. Dell'Anna-Pudlik, M. Dingler, S. Ermeling, S. Franke, A. Janß, K. Radermacher, M. Kasparick, F. Kühn, A. Merzweiler, R. Pahontu, M. Rockstroh, M. Röser, M. Schmitz & A. Zimolong: OR.NET - Secure and dynamic networking in operating room and hospital (Update 2016) In Booklet OR.NET - Secure and dynamic networking in operating room and hospital (Update 2016), Aachen, Deutschland, April 2016
  • J. Benzko, L. Krause, A. Janß, B. Marschollek, P. Merz, J. Dell’Anna & K. Radermacher: Modular User Interface Design for Integrated Surgical Workplaces. Biomedizinische Technik, 2016, 61(2), pp. 183-197 [DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2014-0125]
  • M. Blaar, A. Janß, J. Dell'Anna, A. Höllig, K. Radermacher & H. Clusmann: Bottlenecks and needs in human-human and human-machine interaction - a view from and into the neurosurgical OR. Biomedizinische Technik, 2016, 61(2), pp. 135-146 [DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2015-0059]
  • J. Dell'Anna, A. Janß, H. Clusmann & K. Radermacher: A Configurable Footswitch Unit for the Open Networked Neurosurgical OR – Development, Evaluation and Future Perspectives. i-com, 2016, 15(3), pp. 227-247 [DOI: 10.1515/icom-2016-0031]
  • E.-M. Zeißig, A. Janß, J. Dell'Anna-Pudlik, M. Ziefle & K. Radermacher: Development and experimental evaluation of an alarm concept for an integrated surgical workstation. Biomedizinische Technik / Biomedical Engineering, 2016, 61(2), pp. 199–209 [DOI: 10.1515/bmt-2015-0235]
  • A. Janß, P. Merz, J. Dell’Anna, M. Strake & K. Radermacher: Application of Medical Device User Interface Profiles for Human-Risk Analysis of Open Integrated OR Systems. Proceedings of the 49th DGBMT Annual Conference, 60(1), 2015, pp. 300
  • A. Mildner, A. Janß, J. Dell’Anna, P. Merz, M. Leucker & K. Radermacher: Device- and service profiles for integrated or systems based on open standards. Current Directions in Biomedical Engineering, 2015, 1(1), pp. 538–542 [DOI: 10.1515/cdbme-2015-0128]
  • A. Mildner, A. Janß, J. Dell’Anna, P. Merz, M. Leucker & K. Radermacher: Development of Device- and Service-Profiles for a Safe and Secure Interconnection of Medical Devices in the Integrated Open OR. In: F. Seehusen (ed.): Proceedings of the Risk Assessment and Risk Driven Testing, Third International Workshop, RISK 2015, 9488, 2015, pp. 65-74
  • J. Dell'Anna, A. Janß, M. Blaar, A. Höllig, H. Clusmann & K. Radermacher: Analysis of User-Induced Risks in the Neurosurgical OR. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics 2014, 2014, pp. 352-358
  • A. Janß, M. de la Fuente, A. Ladenburger, M. Strake & K. Radermacher: Risk Analysis and Usability Evaluation of the Zero-Dose-C-Arm-Navigation (ZDCAN) System for Application in Lumbar Interventions. Proceedings Computer Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery, 2014
  • J. Benzko, A. Janß & K. Radermacher: Bewertung und Gestaltung der Mensch-Maschine-Schnittstellen in integrierten OP-Systemen. In: S. Leonhardt, D. Abel & K. Radermacher (ed.): Automatisierungsverfahren für die Medizin, 17(286), 2012, pp. 29-30
  • A. Janß, J. Benzko & K. Radermacher: Evaluation and Design of Human-Machine-Interfaces in Integrated Operating Theatres. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Nordic Ergonomic Society Conference, 2012
  • A. Janß, W. Lauer, F. Chuembou Pekam & K. Radermacher: Using New Model-Based Techniques for the User Interface Design of Medical Devices and Systems. In Roecker, C., Ziefle, M. (eds.): Human Centered Design of E-Health Technologies: Concepts, Methods and Applications. Hershey, P.A.; IGI Global, 2011, pp. 234-251
  • W. Lauer, A. Janß, B. Ibach & K. Radermacher: Man-Machine-Interaction in Complex Intraoperative Orthopedic Work Systems. In: V.G. Duffy (ed.): Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics in Healthcare, 2010, pp. 825-833
  • A. Janß, W. Lauer & K. Radermacher: Usability Evaluation Of A Non-Active Remote Pointing Device For Computer-assisted Orthopaedic Surgery. In: B. Davies, L. Joskowicz & S. Murphy (ed.): Proceedings of the 9th Annual Meeting of CAOS International, 9, 2009, pp. 529-532
  • A. Janß, W. Lauer & K. Radermacher: Performance Evaluation of a Multi-Purpose Input Device for Computer-Assisted Surgery. In: O. Dössel & W.C. Schlegel (ed.): IFMBE Proceedings of 11th International World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, 25/V, 2009, pp. 183-185
  • A. Janß, W. Lauer & K. Radermacher: Using Cognitive Task Analysis for UI Design in Surgical Work Systems. Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, 2008
  • A. Janß, W. Lauer & K. Radermacher: Model-Based Usability Assessment of Interactive Applications in Surgical Work Systems. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Nordic Ergonomic Society Conference, 2008
  • W. Lauer, A. Kanert, A. Janß & K. Radermacher: Analyse humaninduzierter Risiken bei der Optimierung des Workflows in chirurgischen Arbeitssystemen. In: H. Wörn & U. Spetzger (ed.): Tagungsband 6. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Computergestützte Chirurgie, 2007, pp. 317-320